Saturday, 1 June 2019

Natural Gas and CHP and sometimes cooling

Combined Heat and Power Systems

Using energy efficiently has become a goal across industries in the past decade. Rising energy prices, an increasingly competitive marketplace, and environmental regulation of harmful pollutant emissions have all incited commercial and industrial energy users to search out the most efficient and cleanest ways to use energy.

One innovation that is finding applications in commercial, industrial, and even residential settings is what is known as Combined Heat and Power (CHP) systems. Essentially, this type of system takes the waste heat from the burning of fossil fuels and applies it to power another process. For example, a basic CHP system might generate electricity through a large gas-fired turbine. The generation of this electricity would produce a great amount of waste heat. A CHP system might apply it to heating an industrial boiler instead of allowing this heat to escape. In this way, more of the energy contained in the natural gas is used than with a simple gas turbine. This increases energy efficiency, which implies that less energy is needed to begin with (costing the user less), and fewer emissions are generated because a smaller amount of natural gas is used. Typically, a CHP system produces a given amount of electricity and usable heat with 10 to 30 percent less fuel than would be needed if the two functions were separate. A typical electric generation facility may achieve up to 45 percent efficiency in the generation process, but with the addition of a waste heat recovery unit, can achieve energy efficiencies in excess of 80 percent.

Combining Heat and Power gives big efficiency improvements
CHP systems can be implemented to produce as much as 300 megawatts (MW) of electricity, to as little as 20 kilowatts (kW) of electricity, depending on the electrical and usable heat needs of the facility. It is not uncommon for larger cogeneration units to be installed in a facility that has very high space and water heating requirements, but lower electricity requirements. Under this scenario, the excess electricity is easily sold to the local electric utility.

Types of Combined Heat and Power Systems

A typical CHP system consists of an electric generator, which can take the form of a gas turbine, steam turbine, or combustion engine. In addition to this electric generator, a waste heat exchanger is installed, which recovers the excess heat or exhaust gas from the electric generator to in turn generate steam or hot water.

There are two basic types of CHP systems. The first is known as a ‘topping cycle’ system, where the system generates electricity first, and the waste heat or exhaust is used in an alternate process. Four types of topping cycle systems exist. The first, known as a combined-cycle topping system, burns fuel in a gas turbine or engine to generate electricity. The exhaust from this turbine or engine can either provide usable heat, or go to a heat recovery system to generate steam, which then may drive a secondary steam turbine.

The second type of topping cycle systems is known as a steam-turbine topping system. This system burns fuel to produce steam, which generates power through a steam turbine. The exhaust (left over steam) can be used as low-pressure process steam, to heat water for example.

The third type of topping cycle systems consists of an electric generator in which the engine jacket cooling water (the water that absorbs the excess emitted heat from an engine) is run through a heat recovery system to generate steam or hot water for space heating. The last type of topping cycle system is known as a gas turbine topping system. This system consists of a natural gas fired turbine, which drives a generator to produce electricity. The exhaust gas flows through a heat recovery boiler, which can convert the exhaust energy into steam, or usable heat.

While topping cycle systems are the most commonly used CHP systems, there is another type of CHP system known as ‘bottoming cycle’ systems. This type of system is the reverse of the above systems in that excess heat from a manufacturing process is used to generate steam, which then produces electricity. These types of systems are common in industries that use very high temperature furnaces, such as the glass or metals industries. Excess energy from the industrial application is generated first, and then used to power an electric generator second.

In addition to these two types of systems, fuel cells may also be used in a CHP system. Fuel cells can produce electricity using natural gas, without combustion or burning of the gas. However, fuel cells also produce heat along with electricity. Although fuel cell CHP systems are still in their infancy, it is expected that these applications will increase as the technology develops. To learn more about fuel cells, click here.

Combined Heat and Power Applications

CHP systems have applications both in large centralized power plants, and in distributed generation settings. Cogeneration systems have applications in centralized power plants, large industrial settings, large and medium sized commercial settings, and even smaller residential or commercial sites. The key determinant of whether or not combined heat and power technology would be of use is the nearby need or purpose for the captured waste heat. While electricity may be transferred reasonably efficiently across great distances, steam and hot water are not as transportable.

Heat that is generated from cogeneration plants has many uses, the most common of which include industrial processes and space and water heating. Those facilities that require both electricity and high temperature steam are best suited for CHP systems, as the system can operate at peak efficiency. There are many industries that require both electricity and steam, for example the pulp and paper industry is a major user of CHP systems. Electricity is required for lighting and operating machines, while the steam is useful in the manufacturing of paper.

Many commercial establishments also benefit from CHP systems. Universities, hospitals, condominiums, and office buildings all require electricity for lighting and electronic devices. These facilities also have high space and water heating requirements, making cogeneration a logical choice. For example, the University of Florida has an on-campus 42 MW gas turbine cogeneration facility that produces electricity and space and water heating for the campus. For more information on this cogeneration system, click here.

CHP systems are also available to serve smaller sized facilities. In this type of facility, these smaller, ‘modular’ cogeneration units can generate anywhere from 20 kW to 650 kW, and produce hot water from engine waste heat. It is most common to install a system based on the hot water needs of the establishment. For facilities like restaurants or medical facilities, which require hot water year-round, cogeneration makes an economic and environmentally friendly option. In terms of household sized CHP systems, it is possible to install a small system that can generate up to 10 kW, and fulfill all of the household heating requirements of an average home. However, these types of systems are not common. Fuel cell manufacturers are expected to target these small sized cogeneration units once the technology is perfected and it is economical for a household to install such a unit.

To learn more about CHP systems and explore other internet resources, visit the United States Combined Heat and Power association.

Icelandic Expertise to Bring Geo-Thermal to Ethiopia

by Ragnhildur Sigurdardottir, Bloomberg

Reykjavik Geothermal, a power developer backed by hedge fund billionaire Paul Tudor Jones II, is about to kick off a $4.4 billion project to bring geothermal energy to Ethiopia.

Tapping long-built Icelandic expertise in channeling geothermal power, the developer is preparing to start exploration drilling in September for two 500-MW plants in Corbetti and Tulu Moye, south of the capital Addis Ababa. At full-scale, each project would become the largest independent power producer in Africa, according to RG.
The Reykjavik-based company’s exploration teams have picked spots to drill where they can see steam rising from the ground. “All the results from the surface exploration work indicate that we are developing projects in a huge caldera, huge active volcanoes which can sustain at least 1,000 megawatts or more,” Gunnar Orn Gunnarsson, RG’s chief operating officer, said in an interview in Reykjavik.
Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station, Iceland

The projects would become a vital cog in Ethiopia’s drive to become a middle-income country by 2025. Currently, its installed electricity capacity of 4,200 MW only provides power for 40% of its 105 million people. Neighboring Kenya already has 685 MW of installed geothermal capacity, providing almost a third of its energy.

The projects will cost money and need more investors to reach full potential. The first phase will develop 50 to 60 MW, requiring an equity investment of $175 million for each. They have been fully funded and RG holding a significant minority share in each project.

Bringing the full projects on-line would cost about $2.2 billion apiece, with 75% anticipated to be financed via debt. Other owners in the projects include Africa Renewable Energy Fund, Iceland Drilling Co. and Meridiam SAS.

RG expects “strong emerging market returns” from the projects, which will continue to improve as the projects gain scale, according to Gunnarsson.

Gunnarsson said RG is “fortunate” to be backed by Tudor Jones, who owns 23%, and Ambata Capital Partners, which holds 27%.

“But as the scale grows, RG continues to seek further investors,” he said.

The company is now negotiating drilling contracts after getting everything in place with the government, according to Gunnarsson. The projects have been in the works since 2010, through three prime ministers.

“Our relationship with the government has always been very positive and the current government is very supportive,” he said. “They have shown, in particularly over the last year, that they want this to happen and now we have cleared the pathway to go to exploration drilling.”

Tuesday, 11 April 2017

Are Green Energy Policies Effective - or are they all Failures

Whilst this article [Link Below] mainly blames the politicians, the main issue it neglects to cover with regard to cleaner energy methods [Wind, Sun, Tides and Bio-Digesters] is that of the distortion that misaligned subsidies have.

The initial subsidy for Solar Photo-Voltaic [Solar PV] was so over-generous that a massive 'industry' of direct-selling organisations sprang up almost over-night. These panels soaked up so much subsidy that the scheme has been massively cut back - so who set the original subsidy at 44p per kWh? Way, way over the current retail price of electricity - and not into the best technology either.

Now efficiency of 'renewables' [cleaner technologies is a better description; and certainly not wood pellet burning technologies] is often slated as the reason whey they are not effective or efficient.

  • Now the photo below shows steam [yes STEAM] rising from the cooling towers [yes COOLING TOWERS - not Chimneys] - probably Drax with a total of 8 Cooling Towers, ARE DESIGNED TO WASTE AROUND 60% of the energy released from burning Coal or even wood pellets - its the engineering answer to "efficient energy production" [...of a large scale remote power station].
  • Power Station Cooling Towers Wasting 60% Heat
  • However the electricity generated under centralised power plants like this is rarely above 22% at the plug in your house. Some say as low as 11%.

This in-efficiency [in centralised power systems] could have been solved by utilising lots of smaller power plants, built close to towns and cities which would not necessitate Cooling Towers, as waste heat can be distributed to houses and industry - just like in Denmark. Its called de-centralised power or even embedded power where tiny street corner electricity and heat for distribution are generated. So these remote [centralised] power stations are part of our problem.
Embedded Power Islington

Tidal projects also suffer from 'pilot project issues' and unnecessarily high subsidies - so the technology is fine, the "power" is clean and there is zero fuel cost - so lets look into differing cost models and subsidy strategies - this is the problem - how to assist innovation.

Dailymail online/debate/Christopher-Booker

Friday, 24 March 2017

Turn Down Markets

Innovative, carbon free ‘turn-down’ demand response sector delivering for consumers

23 Mar 2017

Capacity Market results announced today mean dozens of industrial and local businesses will help keep the lights on at peak demand next winter and cut carbon through innovation in the demand response sector, the Association for Decentralised Energy said.
Reducing Energy Loads

Approximately 312 MW of carbon free turn-down demand response has been secured as part of the Transitional Arrangements auction, which is aimed at preparing and supporting this innovative sector for the main Capacity Market auction.

The auction, which cleared at £45 per kW on Wednesday, means businesses across the UK will earn just over £14m in revenue, helping them to manage their energy costs and boost their competitiveness simply by turning down or shifting non-critical processes. Examples of demand turn down include temporarily switching off unnecessary lighting, pumps and motors, while demand shifting is the practice of moving a business process to earlier or later in the day.

There is nearly 10GW of untapped business led demand response, including highly efficient combined heat and power, ready to support the UK’s energy security. To achieve this potential however, user led demand response must be able to access all markets, from the Capacity Market and Balancing Mechanism to the Wholesale Market and ancillary services market, on an equal footing with traditional generation.

ADE Director Dr Tim Rotheray said:

"Today’s results are returning value to energy users for helping keep the lights on, while also cutting emissions through zero carbon demand response. Instead of paying power stations to increase supply, businesses will be managing demand in innovative ways while meeting all their energy needs leading to a more efficient, more affordable and lower carbon system.

"This auction is designed to help lower costs and improve uptake of demand response so that this tool will play a key part of the future energy sector. The Transitional Arrangements are vital in supporting this innovative sector to grow, deliver Britain’s security of supply needs and ultimately help drive a more competitive demand response market."

Notes to editors:

Auction results
A total of 373 MW entered the Auction, of which 83.69% received Capacity Agreements for delivery in 2017/18.

Sunday, 26 April 2015

Waking the 'sleeping giant' of energy efficiency

A message from Dr Steven Fawkes (Sept 2012)

Energy  efficiency  can  play  a  major  role  in  addressing  the  multiple  challenges of improving energy  security,  reducing  the  environmental  impacts  and reducing costs  to  consumers,  as well as creating economic growth and jobs.   We need to urgently develop the tools to wake up, what Angela Merkel recently referred to as,“the sleeping giant“.

The German Prime Minister’s reference has prompted the question how do we significantly scale-up energy efficiency? A  scale-up  of  energy  efficiency  deployment requires  an  increase  in demand,  supply  of products  and  services, and availability of  financing.  These  preconditions  need  to  occur across all sectors of the economy.  Many companies in heavy industry claim they have invested in as much energy efficiency as they  can because  of  the high costs  associated with  efficiency.  However, opportunities  still remain, both in retrofit and major process change.
Electric Natural Gas Buses: Cleaner AND Greener

In commercial transport  there  is  a  demand  for  greater  energy efficiency  but  the  main constraint is the equipment replacement cycle as energy use is largely locked in by vehicle choice. There is a lot of variation in demand in the commerce industry  with  large retailers typically carrying programmes  that have  produced good  investment  returns  for  many  years.  In smaller organisations there is a latent demand for energy efficiency but the constraints are more around lack of capacity. However,  there  is  increasing recognition in  non-domestic  buildings of the potential  to holistically retrofit buildings in a way that can produce energy savings of 30-80% but still little demand.
The Empire State Building, where savings of 38% were achieved with a three year payback  period  on  the  marginal capex has  shown the art  of  the  possible. 
Empire State Building Night
Empire State Building

Constraints include  the  well-known split  of landlords’ and  tenants’  incentives,  the  nature  of  commercial property financing and short term investor behaviour. Across all organisations there is a need to increase knowledge amongst decision makers as many opportunities to improve energy efficiency are still being missed because clients don’t  know what can be done.  Capacity and knowledge needs to be built from the board, through energy managers and down to the shop floor.

Unfortunately,  housing demand  is  a  more  difficult  issue.    The  Green  Deal  has  a  target  of retrofitting  14 million homes, which  implies  a  massive  increase  in  demand  for  energy efficiency.  Although most householders would prefer lower energy bills this is not the same as demanding an energy-efficiency retrofit. A retrofit implies disruption equivalent to having a major extension.

Energy efficiency is abstract and unlike an extension it is hard to enjoy or display.  Very few people wake up and think of buying some energy efficiency, they are more likely  to  wake  up  and  think of buying  an  object  of  desire  such  as  a  new  car  or  a  new computer.  Making  efficiency  desirable is particularly difficult  because  of the  level  of disengagement that consumers have from their energy bills and suppliers, with bills largely seen as another form of unavoidable taxation.

The  other  aspect  of  demand  for  energy  efficiency in  households is  behavioural  change. Opower, a customer engagement platform for the utility industry, has produced measurable savings  by giving  consumers  information  about  their  own  energy  use  compared  to  their neighbours usage,  so  called  “neighbour  power”.  Onzo, a  data  and  analytics  service  for utilities, has technology that can provide consumption data for individual appliances as well as the whole house. Impressive savings and reduction in peak loads have been achieved with this approach.

On the supply side we need to build capacity in several areas, particularly measurement and verification of  savings (M&V), integrative design  techniques, and supply  of financing products. M&V should be an essential element of all energy efficiency projects. 

The Empire State Building retrofit has shown the power of integrative design but these design techniques are  still  not  widely used. 
IR Image Showing Differing Heat Loss
Traditional component  rather  than  system engineering  design techniques are  still the norm in practice and classroom.  We need to increase the supply of architects and engineers trained in integrative design techniques.

Financing  for  cars  does  not  make  people  buy  cars,  and  the  same  is  true  for  energy efficiency.  It  does,  however, enable  them  to  overcome  the  barrier  of  upfront  cost.    Many different  designs  of  energy  efficiency  financing  techniques exist  and  in the  USA there  has been a flowering of innovation. Even in the US, however, the market remains tiny (c.$5bn) and not  widely  recognised  by  the  financial  sector. Only  standardisation,  such  as  we  saw develop in the renewables industry, can lead to a mass finance market.

Sunday, 19 April 2015

Gabions: Water Soaks in the Desert

Posted by & filed under Gabions, Irrigation, Land, Soil Conservation, Soil Rehabilitation, Water Conservation, Water Harvesting.

Gabions are one of the crucial feature elements of dry land landscape water harvesting design. 

A gabion is a leaky rock dam wall built in a wadi, valley canyon or water flow, at a point where there would be a reasonable amount of water caught if there was a dam wall in the same position, but the gabion instead leaks through the rocks, slowly releasing a steady flow of water and retained moisture over time. 

As the water is slowed down by a gabion, it drops its sediments, organic materials, behind the rock wall. 

Desert catchments are often large and feature very infrequent rainfall events, and are an actively eroding landscape that is continually being blown away, with sediments either eroded or deposited by the wind if there are wind traps like desert tree systems and forests, but also by water flows which are usually strong and can carry large amounts of organic material and sediments away with them. 

A gabion traps this material, because, as a principle of aqua dynamics, the slowing of the water drops the material volume and quantities that the velocity can carry. So this aqua-dynamic deposition system, placed in a location that forms a large back-up silt field, retains water-soaked silt enriched with organic materials, storing it away from the sun, and acts as a giant sponge, holding the water for long periods whilst slowly leaking it into the landscape. 

A winter’s rainfall can be harvested in a set of silt fields in a gabioned, wadi, canyon or a desert valley that then release that water over the next few months. These silt fields retain more rainfall each year, soaking in quicker because they are already have dampened hydrology, building to a maximum capacity on an average of 7 years.

 In the photos I have included in this post, there is a documentation of two gabions in a wadi in the Dead Sea valley that comes down to the Dead Sea itself. I witnessed these gabions built in 2002 and have visited this site many times since, often after winter rain, and have seen residual water flows extending through the silt fields and down the wadi for long periods of time — increasing each year.

During a PDC in Jordan in Oct/Nov this year (2010), the students and I took a field trip to examine these two wadi gabions and much to our surprise at the end of an exceptionally hot summer with record temperatures the gabions were releasing large flows of clean water through the silt traps. 

Green vegetation, although overgrazed by goats, was beginning to proliferate, and there were even frogs and native freshwater crabs in the water. These are exceptional features for regenerating life in the shaded canyons and other potential locations in a desert system. 

I’ve included one or two other photos from reference points around the world where I have witnessed the dramatic effect of gabions that have been used traditionally for productive yields. We can reverse desertification by the use of these features and others I’ll be reporting on in future posts. 

My advice to you is to study and learn about gabions, report in about good gabion systems, have fun installing them and seeing the great beneficial results that will be obvious as a comparison to the surrounding arid landscape!

Finding Ways to Prevent Water Waste

Posted by Lauren Manning & filed under  Water Conservation. Taken From Permaculture News Australia


Startling Statistics

California is currently in its fourth year of a severe drought. The United States Drought Monitor estimates that over 90 percent of California is currently experiencing “severe” to “exceptional” drought conditions. For farmers, the increasing scarcity of water has been devastating. According to the American Farmland Trust, California is home to 27 million acres of cropland. Nine million of those acres are irrigated farmlands, requiring a steady water supply. Crops typically requiring regular irrigation include vegetables (1.1 million acres), orchards and vineyards (3.1 million acres), and forage crops (1.7 million acres). Roughly 7 out of 10 irrigated farms in California depend entirely, or at least in part, on surface water allocated from state and federal projects. In 2014, farmers received zero water allocations from federal projects and only one-fifth of the water that they would normally receive from state water projects.

The shortage of water for agriculture has forced many farmers to fallow thousands of acres of their land in order to allocate what little water they receive to producing a successful harvest. Some reports estimate that in 2014 alone nearly half a million acres of California farmland were fallowed as a result of the water shortage. Other farmers have chosen to switch their crops to more drought-friendly varieties, including GMO seed varieties designed to thrive in soil with lower moisture content.

The Governor and Local Communities Take Action

Farmers have found some relief from favorable economic circumstances. For example, decreasing fuel prices and a surge in American imports have provided temporary relief from the crippling impact of the drought. In many communities, residents have started sourcing their food from local farmers and agricultural producers in an attempt to keep their businesses going through these tough economic times. Some local grocers are making an effort to source as much of their produce as they can from local farms as opposed to importing fruits and vegetables from other regions.

The State of California has taken action to help soften the blow of a fourth year of severe drought. On April 1, 2015, California Governor Jerry Brown signed an Executive Order mandating water restrictions for all California residents. This is the first time in California’s history that a mandatory water restriction has been set into place to combat drought-related issues. As part of the mandatory water cuts, residents will be required to reduce their water consumption by 25 percent, or face daily monetary fines. The executive order exempts farmers from the new requirement, noting just how badly many farmers have already been impacted.


California: The Horn of Plenty

To truly comprehend the impact that California’s drought may have on food prices, it is important to have an understanding of just how crucial California’s agricultural industry is to the nation and the world at large. Many people refer to California as the nation’s breadbasket. The rich soil and ideal weather conditions make it some of the most fertile planting soil in the world. It is no surprise, therefore, that California produces 400 different types of agricultural commodities and provides roughly half of the nation’s fruits, vegetables, and nuts. 

California is the nation’s leading producer of many food staples, including avocados, broccoli, tomatoes, spinach, grapes, tree nuts, and dairy. According to a study conducted by the University of California Agricultural Issues Center, in 2013 California exported $4.16 billion worth of almonds and over $2.4 billion in dairy products. Other key California exports include wine, tree nuts, grapes, rice, cotton, and beef. Overall, the California Department of Food and Agriculture reports that California’s 77,900 farms earned over $46 billion for agricultural exports in 2013.

Produce Prices are Predicted to Increase as a Result of the Drought

The extent to which California’s drought will have an impact on produce prices depends on the overall severity of the drought and how the drought affects total crop yields. When it comes to produce, the most critical concern during a drought is the diminishing groundwater supply, which is typically needed to provide consistent irrigation to fruit and vegetable crops. In response to a groundwater supply shortage, many farmers choose to plant a smaller amount of a particular crop, or to plant an entirely different crop that is more tolerant to drought conditions.

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, when it comes to fruits and vegetables, any production impacts that may lead to price increases typically manifest at the supermarket shelves within one month. Produce is highly perishable, meaning that farmers cannot hold onto their produce until market prices are more favorable and consumers are more willing to buy. Other factors affecting the price of produce are labor wages, competitive imports, and fuel prices.

As a consequence of the growing scarcity of water for agriculture, the prices of fruits, vegetables, and other food products are expected to increase. For many farmers, the increasing cost of water and fallowing of fields requires them to raise the prices of the their crop yields.

How much of a price hike should consumers anticipate paying? According to the United States Department of Agriculture’s (USDA) reports, “[i]ncreases in retail prices for fresh fruits and vegetables in 2014 were primarily driven by an increase in the prices for citrus fruit.” Additionally, “[p]rices for fresh vegetables fell in 2014 after seeing higher than average price increases in 2013.”

These price increases will likely increase into 2015. USDA estimates that during 2015 supermarket prices will increase an additional 2 to 3 percent over 2014 prices. In particular, fresh fruit prices should rise between “2.5 to 3.5 percent and fresh vegetable prices 2.0 to 3.0 percent.” The USDA cautions, however, that California’s status as a crucial food producer gives it “the potential to drive prices for fruit, vegetables, dairy, and eggs up even further.” Ultimately, the USDA predicts that produce prices will continue to rise.

Other researchers have echoed the USDA’s conclusions regarding the escalating prices of produce as a result of California’s historic drought. For example, a study conducted by Timothy Richards at the W.P. Carey School of Business at Arizona State University predicts that the California drought could increase avocado prices up to 28 percent. According to the USDA, California produces 88 percent of avocadoes consumed throughout the United States. The study also concluded that the price of lettuce could increase between 62 cents and $2.44.

Richards believes that the most significant produce increases will occur with “avocadoes, berries, broccoli, grapes, lettuce, melons, peppers, tomatoes, and packaged salads.” Additionally, the California Farm Bureau has “projected that the average American family will spend about $500 more on food this year because of the drought.”

Of course, estimations regarding potential food price increases are not evaluated in a vacuum. Many other current events and factors play a part in determining whether consumers will pay more or less for fresh produce in the coming months. For example, the California Avocado Commission reports that part of the reason for the increased price of avocados, which rose 16 percent between 2013 and 2014, is the alternate bearing cycle of avocado trees. One year, the tree will produce a high volume of fruits, while producing substantially fewer fruits the following year. In 2013, California’s avocado yield was estimated at 500 million pounds. In 2014, total crop yield was projected at 350 million pounds.

Bridging the Gap with Imports from Abroad

Because California produces “nearly half of US-grown fruits, nuts and vegetables,” finding sources from out of state to supplement the drought’s impact on capacity is difficult. If the price of meat becomes high, grocers can turn to other sources of protein, like eggs and fish, to meet consumers’ needs. When it comes to fruits and vegetables, however, there are no comparable replacements to meet consumers’ demand for freshly grown food.
Since foreign countries that rely on California agriculture to meet their produce needs, like Canada, have started locating potential backup suppliers. 
Argentina, South Africa, and Australia offer bustling agricultural economies that may help foreign food importers bridge the gap caused by California’s drought. One impediment to sourcing produce from these other countries, however, is the tendency of certain produce, like lettuce and fruit, to perish during the journey. For example, citrus fruits and potatoes can be stored on a transatlantic cargo ship for over a week. Berries, fruits, and lettuces, however, must be kept at low temperatures and consumed within seven days.

Despite the logistical hurdles that must be overcome when importing produce from far away localities, some predict that California food wholesalers, distributers, and grocers will have no choice but to import food from Mexico, Central America, and South America. Current reports indicate that a number of fruits, like peaches, are being imported from Chile and are taking up a substantial share of California’s fruit market. 
According to the United States Trade Representative, Chile was the eighth largest source of agricultural imports for the United States in 2013, providing fish, seafood, and $1.8 billion in edible fruits and nuts. Mexico is the second largest supplier of agricultural imports for the United States, providing $17.7 billion worth of fresh vegetables, fruit, wine and beer, and snack foods. Canada is the largest source of agricultural imports for the United States, totaling $21.8 billion.


Despite the enormity of California’s drought crisis there are many solutions and methodologies that can be used to help reduce water consumption and to reduce the cost of each trip to the grocery store for fruit and vegetables.

A New Water Paradigm Through Permaculture

At a more global level, a potential method for ensuring the optimization of water usage is Permaculture, which integrates resources, people, land and the environment through beneficial synergies. Permaculture enables farmers, urban agriculturalists, and rooftop gardeners to imitate the “no waste, closed loop systems” often observed in diverse natural ecosystems. Permaculture utilizes holistic approaches to restoring balance in ecosystems and ensuring that environmental assets, like land, water, and air, are revitalized, recharged, and protected.

When it comes to water management, the development and implementation of a water management system is an necessity. According to Geoff Lawton, it is about “gravity irrigation systems, water harvesting swales and simple systems”, when talking about the Permaculture Research Institute’s site going through his shires largest drought in a hundred years. Geoff continues on to explain that “even though the local village was cut off from water and water was issued in the street, we were able to continue to irrigate all kinds of crops, because we had an oversupply of water”.

Simple Ways to Save Water Around the House

One method that can be used to combat the current paradigm’s incredible water waste is a composting toilet. Composting toilets require little-to-no water, which enables users to cut their water bills drastically. A “dry composting converts human fecal material into a soil-like humus, which is essentially odorless and is scarcely 10 percent of the original volume.” Dry composting facilities are typically emptied once a year, depending on size, making them a low-maintenance way to fight water waste right in your home.

Many features of our modern water paradigm are designed to perform one-time usages of water. For example, “water enters a city, becomes contaminated with human and industrial wastes, and leaves the city dangerously polluted.” Current water systems allocate substantial amounts of water to the clearing away of human waste, typically into a sewer system. The results of this practice are devastating, and include disease, disruption of nutrient cycles, river death, and the formation of so-called “dead zones” in certain coastal areas.

Many regions have implemented water treatment facilities designed to make use of wastewater instead of dumping into lakes, rivers, or oceans. In California, Orange County constructed a $481 million treatment plant that converts sewage into water that is used to replenish local ground aquifers. As the California drought continues to affect farmers and other water users, the “flush and forget” system may become less common.
Other ways to save water around the home include installing water-efficient showerheads, toilets, laundry machines, and dishwashers. In some localities, newly installed appliances must comply with water efficiency requirements. If you cannot afford a low-flow toilet, simply place one to two inches of pebbles inside the bottom of your water tank, or fill two empty plastic bottles with rocks to weight hem down. This strategy alone can save over ten gallons of water each day. Additionally, do not let the water run while you clean produce. Fill the sink or a pan with clean water instead.

Permaculture at Home

Until legislators and policymakers adopt policies that encompass the full spectrum of water sources, individuals should consider implementing permaculture practices right in their backyards, rooftops, and homes. At its heart, permaculture is a design science that can be applied to any human habitat no matter how small the space may be.
According to Lawton, city environments are especially in need of the benefits that permaculture has to offer. A city block requires a remarkable amount of power and electricity to feed the many businesses, homes, and utilities that cover its acreage. One of the greatest features of permaculture is that it can be implemented in almost any setting or environments. There are ways to integrate permaculture practices even for folks who live in apartments, high-rises, or multi-tiered condos. For example, if you live in an apartment that features a balcony, consider growing sprouts or mushrooms.

When it comes to reducing water waste in cities, permaculture provides a method for ensuring that surplus water is returned to the environment or redirected to another source that can make good use of the water. For example, some cities have implemented permaculture streets, which feature controlled water runoff from hard surfaces towards gardens and other growing plants in need of hydration. Because cities are often burgeoning centers of design and intricate landscapes, they provide the perfect habitat for implementing creative permaculture strategies.

For homeowners, front and rear lawns represent ideal opportunities for implementing and experimenting with permaculture methodologies. In many cases, the amount of chemicals and treatments applied to lawns surpasses agricultural activities. Homeowners should consider converting up to half of their lawns to gardens or back to natural habitat. One of the greatest benefits of planting a home garden is the readily available bounty of fruits and vegetables that it provides. As Californians and produce consumers around the world begin to feel the drought’s impact on the price of fruits and vegetables, low-cost, home-based solutions may provide a solution. Permaculture offers an easy, efficient, and affordable way to grow produce right at home.

To achieve ultimate synergy, permaculture focuses on the habits and practices that characterize wild habitats like forests and pastures and mimics them in a controlled environment. Forests typically feature many different layers of vegetation growing side by side, including shrubs, plants, and trees. Among these vegetation layers are insects and animals. Each of these strands operate synergistically with one another as an ecosystem. In permaculture, the integrated relationship between all of these living things is known as a guild. While traditional gardening practices teach individuals how to plant gardens, permaculture focuses on equipping individuals to create and maintain successful guilds right at home. Ultimately, permaculture is a theory of design. Permaculture guilds typically have seven key components: (1) food for humans; (2) food for the soil; (3) diggers and miners; (4) groundcover; (5) climbers; (6) supporters; and (7) protectors. Each of these components work together to create a thriving synergistic system.

Many water saving strategies can be adopted for both permaculture gardens and traditional gardens. First, only water a lawn when it needs watering. To see if your lawn is in need of moisture, step on the grass. If the grass springs back up, it does not need water. If it lays flat, the lawn could use a little water. Intermittent deep-soakings are more effective at providing moisture to parched soil instead of frequent light showers. Also, the time of day that you choose to water can have an impact on how much of that moisture reaches the garden or lawn’s roots. Try to water during the night or early morning, and avoid watering when the sun is out or when it is windy. Adding a thick layer of mulch near the base of plants and tress can help retain moisture as it saturates through the soil. Mulch is particularly helpful for gardens that rely on drip systems. Composting is another helpful tool that can increase water retention. It also provides a dose of minerals and nutrients to the soil and vegetation. Many gardeners are surprised to learn that adding just one pound of compost material can yield “40 pounds of water retention.” Also, rain barrels can provide quick and easy surpluses of fresh water during the rainy season, and add aesthetic character to your lawn or garden.